The Heolleung (獻陵) is the royal tomb of the 3rd King Taejong (太宗, 1367-1422) of the Joseon Dynasty and his wife, Queen Wongyeong (元敬王后, 1365-1420), from the Min family. The Heolleung has a twin mound, with King Taejong on the left, and Queen Wongyeong on the right, when seen from the front. King Taejong was the fifth son of King Taejo and Queen Sinui from the Han family. Distinguishing himself by helping Yi Seonggye to establish the Joseon Dynasty, he was conferred with the title of Prince Jeongan. After suppressing “the Rebellion of the Princes,” that broke out due to the issue of succeeding to the throne, King Taejong ascended the throne, following King Jeongjong. He moved the capital city from Gaegyeong to Hanyang in 1405, and produced many achievements while laying a cornerstone for the Joseon Dynasty. Queen Wongyeong helped him very much until he ascended the throne. But after his enthronement, an endless matrimonial quarrel ensued, and the exile and execution of the Min brothers aggravated the situation.
King Sejong created a separate mound for King Taejong, next to Queen Wongyeong’s mound and connected them with railings to be a twin mound. He also surrounded the tomb by a low wall. The stone figures in front of the tomb are all in pairs, except the stone post. This is based on the system of the Hyeolleung (玄陵) and the Jeongneung (正陵) of the Goryeo Dynasty.
Illeung Royal tomb, Seoul (仁陵)
The Illeung (仁陵) is a joint tomb. The 23rd King Sunjo (1790-1834) of the Joseon Dynasty and his wife Queen Sunwon (純元王后, 1789-1857) from the Gim family are buried together. Being the second son of King Jeongjo, King Sunjo ascended the throne at the young age of 11, allowing Queen Dowager Jeongsun to rule as regent. Since then, the enate started to wield power over state affairs. Despite King Sunjo’s efforts to reform politics, fundamental principles of government deteriorated. The state examination became disordered and corruption in the government personnel administration prevailed. This resulted in disorder in society and various kinds of riots broke out among the people, including the revolt by Hong Gyeongnae. The Ogajaktongbeop (五家作統法, a census registration system to group five houses as one unit) was also carried out in this period, and oppression against Roman Catholicism began in earnest.
King Sunjo died in 1834 and was first buried next to Paju jangneung, the tomb of King Injo and Queen Inyeol. Later, the tomb was moved to the right hill in 1856 (the 7th year of King Cheoljong) as the place was said to be sinister, according to Feng Shui. Queen Sunwon was installed as Queen in 1802. When King Heonjong, a grandson of Queen Sunwon and a son of King Ikjong ascended the throne at the age of eight, she ruled as regent. She died in 1857 and was buried together with King Sunjo.